Movement-related coupling of human subthalamic nucleus spikes to cortical gamma.

Fischer P
Lipski WJ
Neumann WJ
Turner R
Fries P
Brown P
Richardson RM

People with Parkinson’s can find it difficult to move. To understand more about how movement is controlled by the brain, we studied nerve cell activity recorded in two brain regions of people doing hand grips. We discovered that the relative timing of nerve cell activity in the two regions carried information about the start of gripping, suggesting that changes in timing may help to control movements.

Scientific Abstract

Cortico-basal ganglia interactions continuously shape the way we move. Ideas about how this circuit works are based largely on models those consider only firing rate as the mechanism of information transfer. A distinct feature of neural activity accompanying movement, however, is increased motor cortical and basal ganglia gamma synchrony. To investigate the relationship between neuronal firing in the basal ganglia and cortical gamma activity during movement, we analysed human ECoG and subthalamic nucleus (STN) unit activity during hand gripping. We found that fast reaction times were preceded by enhanced STN spike-to-cortical gamma phase coupling, indicating a role in motor preparation. Importantly, increased gamma phase coupling occurred independent of changes in mean STN firing rates, and the relative timing of STN spikes was offset by half a gamma cycle for ipsilateral vs. contralateral movements, indicating that relative spike timing is as relevant as firing rate for understanding cortico-basal ganglia information transfer.

Graphical abstract from Fischer et al 2020 eLife
During gripping movements, neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) was coupled to 60-100 Hz gamma oscillations recorded from primary motor cortex. Stronger coupling was also linked to faster reaction times.
Citation
2020. eLife, 9:e51956.
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